Analysis of state and characteristics of wine tourism in Crimea, the definition of development opportunities
Janos Kodolanyi University
Tourism and Catering
Janos Kodolanyi University College
of state and characteristics of wine tourism in Crimea, the definition
of development opportunities
Consultant: Mironets Nina
Speciality: Tourism and Catering
1.1 Formulation of the problem………………………………………
2. Theoretical basics of wine tourism in Crimea…………………………...
2.1. History of the Crimean winemaking……………………………
2.2. Vineyards of the Crimea……………………………………
2.3. Market trends of wine………………………………………
3. Methods of research……………………………………………
4. Results of the study of
the current state and development prospects and wine tourism in Crimea………………………………………………………………
4.1. Analysis of Crimean wine market………………………………
4.2. The study of consumer preferences using questionnaires……………
4.3. The main activities to promote wine tourism in Crimea………………..
5. Findings of the study and recommendations…………………………………….
7. List of used literature……………………………………………………
1.1 Formulation of the problem.
Tourism (Fr. tourisme; tour - walk, ride) is in a period of social development, when the human need to be informed about new places to travel as a means of obtaining this information was an objective law of development of human society. Travel brings a fun and allows you to relax.
At a certain stage of economic development, when the demand for travel has increased dramatically, there were also the producers of these services. This led to the formation of a special type of goods - tourism, which can be bought and sold in the consumer market.
For N.F. Reimers, tourism - is any journey to rest and explore the new regions and objects, and O.O. Beidik gives the following explanation of the term: tourism - a form of mass travel and leisure to cognition of the environment that is characterized by ecological, educational, and other functions.
The system of views at tourism as a cultural phenomenon in the world scientific community is constantly changing. And now the structure of the tourism industry, the definition of its individual components and even the definition of "tourism" remains controversial.
In the meantime the relevance of a clear definition of this concept is obvious. Indeed, depending on the completeness and clarity of definition of the boundaries of the tourism industry, to identify the structural components in it, the main and auxiliary industries producing recreational services, you can install and predict patterns of development of this system have a clear ideas about its borders, and as a consequence this, calculate the real economic impact of this sector of the economy and determine the extent of its influence on the development of a specific territory.
According to some scientists, under the concept of "tourism" covers all types of human movement, not connected with the change of residence and work. At this point of view of tourism can be understood by one of the forms of migration, which has no permanent nature.
Other authors (Azar V.I., Hodorkov L.F., Gerasimenko V.G., etc.) in their definition of "tourism" underscore the dynamic ("displacement", the "movement"), and territoriality of the phenomenon. Some authors have tourism necessarily imply the presence of active recreation.
In 1963, the UN Conference on International Travel and Tourism, held in Rome, was approved by the definition, according to which "any person within 24 hours or more in a country other than his place of permanent residence (permanent residence) in order to rest, treatment, participation in sports activities, meetings, congresses, etc., are not covered in the host country ... "is considered an international tourist.
Producers of services designed to serve tourists (travelers), merged into the industry, "Tourism". Tourism is not a good first necessity of life, so it becomes an urgent need for a person only at a certain level of income and wealth at a certain level of society.
Tourism nowadays in many countries are booming is playing an increasingly prominent role in the global economy. According to experts, the level of international tourism arrivals in the 1999-2010 years can make more than one trillion tourists, and profitability of this service will steadily increase. Today in the tourism industry accounts for about 6% of global gross national product, 7% of global investment, every 16th job, 11% of global consumer spending.
Since tourism is a cross-cutting area of the economy, encompassing not only accommodation, but also transport, communications, industry, food, entertainment and much more, this area affects every continent, country or city. Importance of tourism to the economies of different countries is primarily due to the advantages that it brings the subject to successful development. First of all - is the growth of workplaces in hotels and other accommodation sites, restaurants and other food industry enterprises in the transport sector and related service industries. Another important advantage is the multiplier effect of tourism, that is, its influence on the development of related industries. A third advantage - an increase of tax revenues to the budgets of all levels. In addition, tourism has economic impact on the local economy by stimulating exports of local products.
In Ukraine, however, a number of reasons, the scope of the tourist activity in comparison with many other countries has not yet been developed. The share of Ukraine, together with all CIS countries accounted for only 2% of world tourist traffic. Today, the number of visitors to our country of foreign visitors for business, tourism and private purposes, is about 8 million, falls far short of its tourism potential.
Among the main reasons hampering the development of tourism - generated by individual foreign and domestic media image of Ukraine as a country that is not particularly conducive to tourism imperfection existing procedures for issuing visas to Ukrainian citizens of foreign countries, safe in the migration of, an undeveloped tourist infrastructure; price discrepancy and quality hotel accommodation.
The development of wine tourism in Crimea would expand the scope of the holiday season and significantly increase revenue. However, for the promotion of specialized wine tours in the national treasury funds are not provided.
The number of tourists visiting the wineries of the Crimea is growing every year, while the development of specialized "wine roads" is in its infancy.
If other areas of the tourism industry developed by 50-60%, the specificity of Crimean wine almost never used, it is random and unorganized.
In his turn it should be noted that the wine tours need to be developed in the offseason.
Wine roads in Europe do not mix with the rest by the sea and getting spa services, as happens in the Crimea.
It is no accident in the late 50s of last century area of vineyards in the Crimea has reached 152 hectares and the gross harvest of grapes accounted for more than 600 thousand tons, however, at the present time; these industries are in a state of deep depression.
During the past decade, the area of vineyards considerably reduced. In 1992 they occupied the area of 53.8 thousand hectares in 2002 - only 32.0 hectares. Gross harvest of berries decreased from 264.6 tons in 1990 to just over 55 thousand tons in 2002, after 1990, inclusive, up to now, retire annually from 2 to 4 hectares of vineyards.
Over the past 10 years, the actual productivity of grapes in the Crimea as a whole accounted for 20-25% of the potentially possible level.
According to the farms and agro formations 6.72 ha (21%) of vineyards hopeless, not worth the cost and are subject to immediate reconstruction.
Negative role in the development of viticulture ARC is imperfect Ukrainian agrarian legislation, failure to preserve the unique winegrowing areas and ensure a rational distribution of vineyards, sustained support for the industry by the state. Measures should be taken for approval and enactment of the Law on grapes and wine, which should be the main regulatory instrument governing the development of viticulture and winemaking in Ukraine and Crimea.
The percentage of capacities of the enterprises wine industry is only 15%.
Very important issue is lack of a powerful advertising campaign that would increase sales and provided promotion tourist product on the market of services and receive a stable income.
Need to disseminate information about what is in the Crimea, cognac, champagne regions, areas dessert and dry wines. Until such information is scarce.
These issues affect the state and development of wine tourism in Ukraine, particularly Crimea.
object of my thesis research is Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as wine
center in Ukraine, where the formed area of wine tourism, the subject
of investigation - the demand for wine tourism product in the region
and to work - an analysis of the dynamics and the factors that affect
the quantity demanded.
2. Theoretical basics of wine tourism in Crimea.
2.1. History of the Crimean winemaking.
In Crimea, the first vineyards have supposedly about 3 thousand years ago, when the people inhabiting the Crimea began to move to a settled life and began to cultivate grapes grown on the peninsula using wild grape plants. As evidenced by archeological excavations near Inkerman, Tauris engaged in viticulture and winemaking is already in X-VII centuries BC. According to the French scientist and explorer Dubois de Monpere, many stone buildings surviving in the "cave cities" Kaczynska and Belbekskoy valleys outside their appearance gives reason to suppose that they were designed for making wine, and the inhabitants of these cities have long been familiar with this industry of Agriculture.
Already, at ancient period of viticulture played a very essential role in the economy of the inhabitants of the Crimea. Since the days of the campaign, B.K. Minich during the Russian-Turkish war (1735 - 1739) Crimean wines came into use in Russia, where, however, fell in the XVI century albeit in small quantities. The resettlement of Greeks, Armenians and other ethnic groups in the Priazovye to the savagery has retained them without the supervision of vineyards. Land, sometimes giving away the landlords if they are developing vineyards were so large, fortress for processing the first time was not enough, and this led to some decline of viticulture and winemaking in the Crimea. After the annexation of Crimea to Russia winemaking has evolved very slowly, but increasing demand is met mainly by foreign wine.
Before the arrival of Catherine II in the Crimea (1787) carried out the road from Simferopol to Alushta and from Balaklava to Bakhchisarai, which significantly contribute to the development of viticulture was in the Crimea. In addition, the government adopted measures to encourage new tab vineyards. For example, in 1801 instructions for internal order and control Novorossiysk colonies indicated the need for public vineyard and in the annex to the manual instructed to issue to each colonist from 5 to 10 vines for planting.
Since 1820 began active development of wine on the southern coast of Crimea. Prince Potemkin organized a bookmark of new vineyards to both local and imported from abroad planting material. The main center of viticulture and winemaking is Sudak and Kokozskaya Valley
Prominent role in the development of the domestic wine played tireless activities of a prominent Russian winemaker L.S. Golitsyn, who appeared one of the pioneers in the production of sparkling wine champagne method.
In his estate, "New World" was created exemplary vineyards, built special cellars, conducted extensive experiments on the champagne. As a result, in 1900 at the World Exhibition in Paris, sparkling wine from the New World was first awarded the highest award - the Cup Grand Prix. Since 1845 the Crimean wines were sold in Kharkov, Kiev, St. Petersburg, Orenburg, Saratov. Important role in the territorial expansion of the wine market has played a better transport links. In 1832 it was decided to construct a breakwater and pier Yalta, and the construction of roads from Alushta to Yalta and then to Sevastopol. In 1860 from Simferopol to Yalta was held highway. In the late 60s and early 70s are built railroads connecting the southern regions of Ukraine to the Russian market. By the end of the century by railroad Kharkov-Sevastopol, held in 1869 - 1875's., Transported over 130 tons of wine (for example, in 1891 - 137 in 1893 - 207 thousand tons of wine), from which, however, more than half were in the range of the Crimea for local consumption.
The development of winemaking in the past decades of the nineteenth century contributed to the preferential tax policy of the government. Taverns on the Charter of 1876 in the provinces of wineries selling wine of its own products allow winemakers without a license.
The total area of vineyards in the Crimea at the beginning of 1914 reached 8871 ha and was 0.75% of total rotation, taking sixth place among eleven major crops grown in that time in the Crimea.
During the First World War and the Civil War viticulture and winemaking Crimea suffered greatly, especially in connection with the ban on the sale of wine in wartime. In this war dealt a powerful blow in the first place, on a low-power and middle peasants.
After the revolution, on the basis of the former vineyards of specific agencies and privately owned farms came the first state farms.
The total area of vineyards in 1941 reached 13 760 ha. At this time, the culture of grapes was more profitable tobacco growing twice, fruit - three times, and field crops - nearly 15 times. Before the war in the Crimea were two factories of sparkling wines, plants for production of grape juice, built over a dozen primary processing areas. During the Second World War, more than four thousand hectares of vineyards were destroyed and others were sparse at 30-35%. In the early postwar years, the restoration of the vineyards was extremely slow.
The main reason for the fall of viticulture production is, of course, the economic system in which the grape production is marginal. In households times the value of the grapes in the State is firmly established by the state as prices do not make even the cleaning costs of grapes, ie prices do not take into account the real costs of production of grapes.
The latest, most powerful, shock to the industry was the economic crisis all over the Ukrainian economy and the spontaneous transition state to the new conditions of market economy. Completely abolished grants from the state budget for new bookmark and reconstruction of dilapidated vineyards.
With the emergence of Ukraine as an independent state situation has not changed, the state does not interested in wine-making state of the Crimea, and especially not his finances.
The revival of the Crimean winemaking in the XIX century
At the beginning of the XIX century Crimean wine rises again, but in a different form. Having lost the connection to the past, without traditions and centuries-old experience, it is reviving lovers, not for him schadivshimi funds and not be put to the forefront of practical benefit.
The central figure among these pioneers of amateur is graph M. S. Vorontsov. In his estates Alupka, Massandra, Ai-Danil and Gurzuf he put a lot of grapes for wine cellars built. In order to increase their income Vorontsov make purchases grapes from small landowners and farmers who did not have their own cellars and wine expensive equipment. Wines made from grapes purchased do not mix with the wine of their own gardens and sold under the brand "Aged in the cellars of Vorontsov." Unpromising wine for vodka and a smoke called "Vorontsovskaya Stark." In the 40s on the South Coast have more than 350 wineries. Vineyards at that time focused mainly in Yalta, Simferopol and Feodosia districts with a total area of 3.5 hectares.
By the early 90's wine production has increased in the Crimea, and the area under vines was more than 5 thousand hectares. Well known major wine trade companies Gubonin (Gurzuf) Tokmakova and Molotow (Alushta) Tayurskiy (Castel). The main trading company in the Crimea was a firm GN Khristoforova (Simferopol). The founder of the company - Russian Georgy Khristoforov was the first guild merchant. In 1853, during the Russian-Turkish war, he redeemed at military departments of Russia powder cellars, wine stocks purchased the southern coast.
Thorough treatment could achieve consistently high quality wines produced, as evidenced by the numerous gold medals at Russian exhibitions in Italy, Belgium and the Order of the "Grand Prix" in Paris in 1905.
The First educational establishments of Winegrowing and winemaking.
The successful development of viticulture and winemaking needs skilled personnel. In 1804 in Sudak opened government-sponsored schools of winemaking. The choice of location made academician PS Pallas and he was also entrusted High School and observation attributed to him State-owned vineyards and orchards. In 1810, surveillance of college was entrusted to Count Mikhail Vorontsov. By this time the school was in great decline. The first director Nikita garden X. X. Steven, the audited school in 1813, wrote in reports that it drags out a miserable existence. In 1828, by order of the Vorontsov Sudak School was closed and its functions transferred to the garden Nikita and orderly with him, "Magarach institution."
The history of viticulture and winemaking in the southern coast of Crimea is connected to the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens. First, Steven had a negative attitude to ensure that the garden worked on viticulture and winemaking. In terms of the garden, he wrote that the grapes do not really belong to this institution. However, in order not to exclude completely such a useful part of horticulture, then all sorts of grapes will be diluted by a few vines, but good rock so much, that and a little wine could be made. This will serve to compare the soil and climate in Sudak, Nikita, and to determine which breeds in each of these places are more profitable.
The first 57 buckets of wine were prepared in Nikitsky garden in 1819; however, Steven believed that the area of Sudak more suitable place for the development of grape culture in the Crimea than the South Coast and viticulture in Nikitsky garden he left purely research purposes. Later, the governor of Novorossiysk Vorontsov gave instructions to identify the tract Magarach on the ground, once in regards to the Greek village, the site of 6 hectares, where it was dug Plantage 0.5 hectares for the cultivation of exemplary treasury vineyard. In the spring of 1829 on the territory of present-day development and production facilities of the Institute "Magarach" were planted first 4000 vines. In 1828 began the construction of outbuildings in Magarach, in 1833 - 1835 built wine cellar winery, which lasted until the seventies and was completely destroyed by landslides. A new cellar was built in 1851 since 1849, became operational four-year college Magarach winemaking. For applicants has been established educational qualification - required knowledge of letters.
Magarach School lasted 20 years and in 1868 was closed. Instead horticulture school opened Nikitskoye and winemaking. The course was designed for 8 years. Nikitintsy create distinctive wines, improved technology have made new and progressive. Significantly, many of nikitintsev remained as assistant winemakers at low pay to be able to improve in their knowledge, it is better to work out the technical skills and techniques.
The success of the graduates of the school and their enthusiasm for the work are explained the love of his profession, which imparted inmates talented teachers. Nikitintsy worked in almost every wine-producing farm in the Crimea and southern Russia. Thus was born the link "Magarach" with "Massandra". Magarach On the forties, the XIX century Magarach revealed the true purpose of the Southern coast of Crimea in the preparation of fortified and dessert wines from grapes vysokosaharistogo. Prepared without the addition of alcohol, these wines walked very slowly, very expensive and had low sales.
Over the centuries humanity has accumulated rich experience in vineyard cultivation, development of a variety of wines and their use as a delicious and original food. High-quality wine, enjoying many flavors and sensations can cause a person a sense of the sublime, such as those which cause all the works of art - creations of human genius.
Modern industrial winemaking began in the Crimea in the XIX century. Over the years it has experienced periods of prosperity and when the Crimean wines repeatedly took first places in international competitions, and periods of decline as in the days after the anti-alcoholic decree in 1985, the aforementioned bad word. However, the Crimean winemaking tradition proved stronger than the evil decrees, and we continue to rejoice at the magnificent Crimean wines and flavored brandies.
2.2. Vineyards of the Crimea.
In the Crimea, in almost all regions, there are wineries with its specialization. That is the largest and most famous of them.
Grape and Wine Research Institute "Magarach"
In the Crimea, in almost all regions, there are wineries with its specialization. That is the largest and most famous of them.
Magarach - an outskirt of Yalta, whose name is entered in the name of the Institute of Grape and Wine "Magarach". Institute building is seen against the backdrop of the mountains above the road at the entrance to Yalta. Now it is the oldest, regretted world famous research institute that conducts research on viticulture and winemaking. For reference, if the world's best known about 4 thousand varieties of grape culture, the collection "Magarach" consist of 3.2 thousand. Here are developing techniques and technology of growing grapes, techniques to improve productivity and control pests and diseases, as well as technology, wine and juices, give life to new varieties of grapes and new wines.
The Institute has several experimental farms located throughout the Crimea, which are a kind of laboratory for the study and breeding of rare and breeding of new varieties. As an example of one of these households consider the experimental farm Foothill, located in the village of Vilinov, Bakhchisarai region of the Crimea. Foothill farm has 520 ha experimental area, rare species are sometimes represented 10.5 bushes, because of which come here from afar for research and, of course, for student practice. However, seedlings of rare varieties from the local nursery sold to the public. Remarkably is rich wine collection (Enoteca) economy. For sale for serious cash are wines with an exposure of 2 to 5 years, well such as Malaga Semillon 1924 - now only for the auction.
Unfortunately, the institute "Magarach", who in the recent past, the leading scientific center of wine, is now in an extremely difficult economic situation. While state-funded (and they should be called the lack of funding at all), the Institute is unable, at present, to buy any equipment, materials, and new varieties of grapes to fully research and development. Everything rests on a small number of winemakers capacity "system guard", by which institution and exist at all. The second big problem is the institution that takes this complex situation, the "Magarach" trying by hook or by crook to take away the land of vineyards on the southern coast of Crimea. The overall situation of the Institute rather critical and it is very sad. I'd like to hope that in future the situation will change for the better.
In "Magarach" created a kind of treasure - enoteca. It has a bottle that has passed for 150-200 years.
However, "Magarach" - is not only the "brains" of wine, but also production luxury products.
The best way to see all products at one place are public tastiness, practiced by the Institute. Its visitors not only learn the taste of local wines, but also get unique information about the history and culture of wine consumption in general, from the legends associated with it, to how to properly hold a wine glass.
Association "Muscat" - a large head winery situated in the town of Muscat near Yalta, and nine farms, factories, "Livadia", "Gurzuf", "Tauris", "Alushta", "Malorechenskoye", "Privetnoye", "Marine" "Veselovsky," "Pike" - 4,000 acres of vineyards.
The basis of the production of wine "Muscat" is aging. Activities are carried out at main plant "Massandra" The main cellar which was built by Leo Golitsyn from 1894 to 1897.
"Massandra" is specializes in producing dry and semisweet table wine, fortified spirits, dessert wines and liquor. Wines "Massandra" in international competitions were awarded six trophies "Super Grand Prix", ten of cups, "Grand Prix" and 225 gold and silver medals. More awards for its wines have neither a wine company.
Factory of vintage wines and cognacs "Koktebel"
At 36 km from Sudak is one of the most famous factories in the Crimea wines and cognacs "Koktebel". The company's products are well known and popular not only in the Crimea, but also abroad. Numerous awards, which each year are Koktebel wines speak for themselves. Excursion to the plant may be one of the most vivid impressions of travel in the eastern Crimea.
Factory of vintage wines "Koktebel" has several tasting rooms and brand-name stores, trade in the Crimea delivered well. Relatively recently separated from the plant association "Muscat", the local sites have very ancient tradition of winemaking, and the conditions allow and engage in dry and sweet wines.
In Otuzskowoy valley, on the sunny slopes of the "blue mountains" anciently cultivated vines.
In 1959 he began construction of the grand wine cellars and winery (on a hillside near the village of Planerskoe). According to the size and complexity of the complex, known as the Second Plant (First - Massandra) was not equal in the Crimea. Lower wine storage - is eight crashed into a mountain tunnel, connected by a 90-meter gallery. Each tunnel is 60 meters, width - 8, 4 m, height - 7.6 meters. The top wine storage consists of five of the same tunnel, but their length - from 120 to 360 meters. The total length of tunnels, basements - 1440 meters. Unique work performed by workers who were building the Moscow subway.
Now Koktebel winemakers produce wonderful, dry, firm and sweet wines, cognac spirits and vintage brandies on traditional technology. Thanks to the varietal composition of grapes, a unique soil and climate conditions in the area, there are released original wines and brandies.
"Fountain" wine factory. Bakhchisarai.
"Fountain" wine factory specializes on the production of ordinary table, fortified, dessert and sparkling wines. Quality and variety of wines of this company are popular among consumers, especially the sparkling "Bakhchisarai fountain."
"Ampelos" wine company. Evpatoria.
"Ampelos" specializes in the production of table and dessert wines. Especially good light table wines of the company, the award-winning various competitions.
AP "Dionysus", Simferopol.
AP "Dionysus" specializes in the production of vintage and ordinary fortified and dessert wines. Sherries are good that the company - "Crimea" and dry, award-winning international competitions, and kahors wine and port wines very popular with consumers.
The wine factory. Simferopol.
Winery specializes in the production of cognac. The company's products have high quality cognac and vintage "Ai-Petri Mountain" is not just an award-winning competitions.
Almost every company has its own tasting rooms where you can not only taste the wines and brandies, which is a first-hand (some brands can enjoy only here), but also learn a lot of interesting and useful information about them. In each resort town of any tour companies or tour organizers on the seafront offer to visit Wine Tasting Rooms.
2.3. Market trends of wine.
According to the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OVI), global wine consumption is falling. However, domestic companies predict that the wine production in Ukraine for 2014 may increase by 110%.
Addition № 2 «Dynamics of supplies to Ukraine 2005-2011».
Wine market analysis of over the period 2005-2010. Review (monitoring) of the wine market is held on a monthly basis to determine the major trends, dynamics, and market size. Market research reveals the fault channels (distribution network) promoting goods and the competitive environment. Monthly analysis of the wine market determines the dominant financial and economic indicators and basic consumer preference for existing brands (brands). Also, extensive analysis of the wine market shows the range and characteristics of the product represented in this segment.
In the 1st quarter of 2011 relative to Q4 2010 dynamics of the main indicators of the wine market of Ukraine, was characterized by a tendency to decrease. Thus, the production volume decreased by 24%, export - by 23% and the rate of reduction in imports of wine during this period was 29%.
Compared to the same period in 2010 Q1 2011 imports of wine to Ukraine increased almost 3-fold. At the same time the production volume decreased by 29% and the rate of decline in exports reached 48%.
Market analysis of wine Ukraine for 2006-2010 is an increase in imports of the product into the territory of Ukraine in the natural units of measurement, which took place in the first two years of the study period. Thus, the maximum growth rate of imports of wine there in 2006 relative to 2005 (2, 7 times). In 2007 compared with 2006, imports of wine increased by 24%. In the second half of the period studied the dynamics of index gained the opposite direction. In 2008 to 2007 imports of wine fell by 43%, and in 2009 compared with 2008 decrease in imports of the product was 47%. In 2010, a significant increase in this indicator, is the rate of which has almost reached 100%.
Exports of wine from Ukraine in the natural units of measurement in the first half of the study period decreased. Thus, the rate of decline in exports in 2006 relative to 2005 was 6%, and in 2007, compared with 2006, reaching 14%. In 2008, exports of wine increased in relation to 2007 by 14%, and in 2009 the growth of this index reached a 4-fold relative to 2008 in 2010 relative to 2009 this figure remained virtually unchanged.
Dynamics of production of wine in the territory of Ukraine in the natural units for the period of analysis was characterized by a positive trend. With maximum growth observed in 2006 relative to 2005 (29%), while the minimum - in 2007 relative to 2006 (0.4%). In 2008 and 2009 compared to with previous periods increased production of wine was 18% and 8% respectively. In 2010, the rate of growth of the indicator relative to 2009 was 25%.
In 2009 in relation to 2008 the consumption wine by Ukrainians in the natural measurement units decreased by 16.5%. However, in 2010 there has been significant growth in this indicator, the rate of which reached 38%.
Moldova and Georgia are the main suppliers of wine on the territory of Ukraine. A small market share is distributed between France, Chile, Italy and other countries.
Surprisingly, the Ukraine, collecting about 300-350 tons of grapes per year produces about 16.5 million deciliters of wine. That is, products produced much more than raw materials are grown, and this fact makes consumers wary to the quality of domestic wines.
Spread rumors that 80% of all Ukrainian wine - it's a fake. Some experts argue that the causes of the dominance of a few counterfeit, but the lack of basic raw materials. The total area of grape land in Ukraine is about 90 thousand hectares. A small amount of high quality raw materials, as well as the desire of manufacturers striving to maximize the cost-cutting led to the fact that Ukraine has a large share of wine (60%) is made from grape marc. This problem is particularly true for those businesses that are characterized by the production of fortified beverages.
In addition, recently there is increasing talk of a "powder wines." Winemakers say "Powder wine - a new era of Ukrainian wine-making." Today this wine is too expensive, and 80% of Ukrainian manufacturers use unnatural ingredients. Natural wine can be cheaper than 20 hruvnias. But for consumers it is associated c fraud.
A new association, "National Bureau of grapes and wine," which united several Ukrainian wine makers argues that 10 years (until 2020) they intend to increase wine consumption in Ukraine 5 times and increase the consumption of wine is the domestic producer.
The program is planned to increase several times, and manufacturing. Such a strong increase in production will be achieved through the expansion of areas under vines. Today, the country's vineyards occupy 90 hectares, and by 2020 their area to be increased to 200 thousand hectares.
The wine market Ukraine is quite promising for Ukrainian producers.
The main task of local wineries is to enhance the development of marketing
programs in order to maintain market share, and preserve and strengthen
the loyalty of existing customers.
3. Methods of research.
For effective and qualitative performance goals and objectives of the work I used two methods of data collection: primer and sikunder.
Example of research methods used is as follows:
Quantitative research - allows mathematical and statistical indicators of trends in the distribution of the studied traits. These techniques allow the research to get answers to questions of "who" and "how? » This method will help me to answer the question: "Which populations wine tourism use most in demand? » "What is the amount of wine consumed Crimean’s and what wine is a market leader? »
survey (questionnaire) - an intensive and detailed interviews, the interviewer
asks in which the respondents. This method will help me to explore the
expectations of tourists wine tourism? Also for the overall results
will be completed questionnaires (Appendix № 1). The study used: the
method of abstraction, system-structural analysis, methods of clustering
analysis. At this stage is the assessment of the potential of wine tourism.
In determining it covers economic, environmental and social aspects.
Some of them belong to the territory of the tourist attractions, another
- the factors that influence the development of wine tourism in the
region. We consider the resource, infrastructure, image and social and
political components of the potential of wine tourism. Social, studies,
economic and informational resources are the part of the natural resources.
The major components of the wine tourism product are:
-Tourist attractions, area (habitat, landmarks, architectural objects, planting vineyards, wineries, festivals and exhibitions, tasting and wine roads, etc.)
- Infrastructure area (lodging facilities, gastronomic facilities, transportation, retail chain)
- Access to the area (number of transport and transport infrastructure)
- The image area (there is in the minds of customers and significantly affects the subconscious desire to visit this particular area)
The price, which depends on the standard of service, time of year, transport
and so on.
Demand for services in the absence of reliable statistical information determined by an expert on the basis of the calculated data.
To write a research paper I have also used secondary research methods: a collection of information through various instruments of wine tourism enterprises (travel agencies, Grape and Wine Research Institute "Magarach", etc.), records and documents of the state statistics, the statistics of the main department of state administration, scientific journals, magazines, newspapers, articles, websites and books by famous scholars. Of methodological base of the study were the works of local and foreign scientists: V.F. Kifyaka, E.I. Bogdanov, I.V. Zorina, O.O. Beydyka, R. Braymera, E.V. Kolotova etc.
At this stage of the study is appropriate to conduct the SWOT-analysis as a specific method sikunder study. This analysis method of socio-economic situation is ground and finding the key areas of management of rural tourism.
Acronym SWOT means:
• S - strengths